Am I Fat

Diet Glossary
Diet and weight loss terminology explained:-
The Dietitian body type: how is your body shaped? Do you have big bones or small bones? Wide shoulders or a narrow chest? People come in different shapes and sizes, and knowing your body type can help determine your ideal weight. A doctor or dietitian can tell you more.
Our dictionary defines fat as:-
  1. containing fat; oily; greay
  2. fleshy; plump; obese;
  3. thick; broad
  4. An oily material in animal tissue and plant seeds
A Adipose - of, relating to, fat; the fat found in adipose tissue. Aerobic Exercise - Exercise with a low enough intensity to facilitate adequate oxygen transfer to the muscle cells so that no buildup of lactic acid is observed. This type of exercise is useful for reducing insulin levels and lowering blood glucose. Aerobic exercise elevates the heartrate and breathing for a sustained period of time. Examples of aerobic exercise include walking, jogging/running, swimming, rowing, stairclimbing, bicycling, cross-country skiing, step and dance exercise classes, and roller skating. Antioxidants - Antioxidants are enzymes or other organic substances, such as vitamin E or beta-carotene, that are capable of counteracting the damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissue. There is substantial evidence that antioxidants in the right proportions can have a significant effect on overall health and well being by reducing the amount of free radicals in the body. Anorexia - eating disorder recognizable by the sufferer literally starving himself; typically begins around puberty and complications include extreme weight loss; although an anorexic looks emaciated and unhealthy, she normally pictures herself as fat. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- B Bariatric - refers to medical & surgical treatments for obesity. Binge Eating Disorder - eating disorder recognizable by binges of overeating unreasonable amounts of food; does not include purging. Blood Glucose - The primary source of energy for the brain. Elevated blood glucose levels cause diabetes and accelerate aging. Blood Sugar - This is the amount of glucose circulating in the blood stream. The brain requires sugar for optimal function and the blood stream is its only source. Too low of a blood sugar results in hypoglycemia and gives rise to hunger, poor mental focus and, eventually, death of brain tissue. Excess levels of blood sugar leads to an overproduction of insulin Body Dysmorphic Disorder - recognizable by the obsession over appearance, especially on a single feature or body part. Body Mass Index ( BMI ) - means of relating your height to your weight; procedure for estimating the degree to which one may be over or underweight. Bulimia Nervosa - eating disorder that involves consuming large amounts of food and and then vomiting, abusing laxatives or diet pills, and/or using enemas or exercising obsessively. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- C Calories - commonly accepted term for the kilocalorie; measures the calorific, heating, or metabolizing value of foods. Calorie Restriction - The reduction of calories that maintains adequate levels of protein and essential fats while also supplying adequate amounts of micronutrients. Carbohydrates - dietary nutrients which include sugars, starches and fibers; serve as the body's main source of energy. All carbohydrates, whether simple or complex, are composed of sugar. The brain requires incoming carbohydrate at every meal for optimal function. Pasta and sweets are well known carbohydrates. But bread, grains, fruits and vegetables are also carbohydrates. Whatever their form, carbohydrates are broken down to simple sugars for absorption. However, the greater amount of carbohydrate consumed in a meal, the greater the amount of blood sugar increase and this increases insulin secretion. Cholesterol - fatty chemical which is an important part of the outer lining (membrane) of cells in the body. Most cholesterol is produced in the liver, and carried in the bloodstream to the body's cells by special proteins called "lipoproteins." Cholesterol has the properties of an oil and cannot dissolve in blood without lipoproteins. A steroid alcohol found in animal tissue. High levels in the blood are linked to atherosclerosis, heart disease, and gallstones. Cholesterol is essential to life as a constituent of cell membranes, and is involved in the formation of bile acid and some hormones including estrogen, testosterone, and cortisol. Total cholesterol is made up of HDL, LDL and triglycerides -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- D Daily Value (DV) - new term appearing on food labels, Daily Value is a new dietary reference value created to assist consumers in using food label information to plan a healthy diet. Diabetes - A condition in which blood glucose is not well controlled. Type I diabetics make no insulin, whereas Type II diabetics are characterized by the overproduction of insulin, but the inability of the target cells to respond to the insulin. Dietitian (RD) - a registered dietitian is a health care professional who has attended school and studied nutrition and related subjects. He or she can advise you on topics like what foods provide the best fuel for your body, and how to change your eating habits to improve your health. Disordered Eating - sometimes used to describe an eating disorder, such as anorexia. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- E Eating patterns - do you watch TV while you eat? Do you nibble on nachos when you're bored and chew on chocolate when you're depressed? The places that you eat, the times that you eat, and the reasons why you eat form your eating patterns. Keeping a food journal can help to trace your pattern - and make positive changes. Endocrine - The endocrine system provides "long-distance" communication between hormones and their target organs. The action begins when a secreting gland sends a message in the form of a hormone into the bloodstream. The hormonal messenger travels through the bloodstream to reach a distant cell. The cell receives the message and responds with specific predictable action. Hormones are usually paired in sets, consisting of two hormones with powerful but opposite physiological effects, e.g., insulin and glucagon. Enzyme - protein that acts as a catalyst in mediating and speeding a specific chemical reaction. Exercise - one of the best means to tackle obesity in people is to encourage them to exercise and maintain a healthy diet. Exercise cardiac stress testing - most widely used cardiac (heart) screening test. Patient exercises on a treadmill according to a standardized protocol, with progressive increases in the speed and elevation of the treadmill (typically changing at three-minute intervals). During the exercise cardiac stress testing (ECST), the patient's electrocardiogram (EKG), heart rate, heart rhythm, and blood pressure are continuously monitored. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- F Fat - 1: having much flesh (especially fat); "he hadn't remembered how fat she was"2: having a relatively large diameter. Fat differences - While it is obviously not true in all cases, women generally have a higher percentage of body fat than men. There are many reasons why women have more body fat than men. One is biological. Body fat content is 25% for women at normal size compared to 15% for men. All other things being equal, such as age and exercise levels, women require fewer calories per pound of body weight daily than do men. Female hormones make it easier to convert fat into food. Most dietary fat is composed of fatty acids. Fatty acids fall into three categories: saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated. Saturated fats tend to make cell membranes more rigid and can lead to increased insulin production. Sources rich in saturated fats are items like butter, hard cheese, and fatty cuts of red meat. Monounsaturated fats have no effect on insulin and can be considered protective against heart disease. Sources rich in monounsaturated fat are olive oil, avocados, and certain nuts like almonds and peanuts. Polyunsaturated fats are the building blocks for hormones called eicosanoids. Unfortunately they tend to go rancid easily and are often made into trans fatty acids (partially hydrogenated oils) by the food industry to lengthen their shelf life. This makes them into extremely undesirable compounds and they should be avoided. Examples are margarine and many of the oils used in packaged cookies, cakes and crackers. Fenfluramine - in a class of drugs called anorectics that decrease appetite by changing brain amounts of serotonin and possibly by increasing glucose utilization. Fenfluramine is used to treat obesity. Fenfluramine is a nervous system stimulator like the amphetamines, but unlike them, it produces more depression of the brain and less stimulation. Fen-Phen Heart Hazard - combination of two drugs, fenfluramine and phentermine has become a popular medical regimen together with dieting and exercise as a weight reduction program for obese individuals. Research has shown evidence that there may be a hazard associated with this combination. Fiber/Fibre - Fiber is plant-based carbohydrate that cannot be absorbed by the body. Two types of fiber are soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber swells in the presence of water and acts like a sponge to carbohydrates, slowing down their entry into the blood stream. Good sources of soluble fiber are apples, oatmeal, and beans. Insoluble fiber does not absorb water and acts as a bucking agent only. Insoluble fiber is found in most grains and vegetables rich in cellulose. Food Blocks - A system of putting protein, carbohydrate, and fat into portion sizes (mini-blocks) that contain the equivalent amount of each component despite their differences in nutrition density. The size of one mini-block of protein is 7 grams of protein or approximately 1 oz. of lean meat. The size of one mini-block of carbohydrate is 9 grams of carbohydrates. This could be 1 cup of most vegetables, 1/2 a fruit, or 1/4 cup of beans, pasta, or rice. A fat mini-block contains 1 1/2 grams of fat. This could be 3 almonds, 1/3 a teaspoon of olive oil, or a tablespoon of guacamole. When you put one mini-block of each macronutrient together, you have one Zone block. One the Zone Diet, you try to maintain equal numbers of protein, carbohydrate, and fat mini-blocks at each meal. Free Radical - Any molecule that contains an unpaired electron. Free radicals are unstable and will extract electrons from other biological molecules, which generates more free radicals. It is when important biochemicals become free radicals that significant molecular damage is inflicted and aging is accelerated -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- G g (gram) - symbol for gram, a unit of measurement of weight and mass in the metric system. In weight, a gram is equal to a thousandth of a kilogram. In mass, a gram is equal to a thousandth of a liter (one cubic centimeter) of water at 4 degrees centigrade. Gastric atrophy - complication in which the stomach muscles shrink and become weak. It results in a lack of digestive juices. Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach Genetics - the science of genes, which decide your appearance, growth pattern, and more. Genetics explain why if your parents both have brown eyes, you probably have brown eyes, too Glucose - The only simple carbohydrate that circulates in the bloodstream. Glucose is the primary fuel used by the brain. It can also be stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen Glycemic Index - This measures the rate at which a carbohydrate will enter the blood stream as glucose. The faster a carbohydrate enters the blood stream, the higher its glycemic index. The higher the glycemic index of a food, the faster it will raise the blood glucose level (and insulin secretion). Fruit and vegetables tend to have a low glycemic index, whereas breads, pasta, grains and starches tend to have a high glycemic index. Some simple sugars, like table sugar, actually enter the bloodstream slower than many complex carbohydrates such as bread, rice and potatoes! Glycogen - Glycogen is the storage form of glucose located in liver and muscle cells. Gout - medical condition characterized by abnormally elevated amounts of uric acid in the blood, recurring attacks of joint inflammation (arthritis), deposits of hard lumps of uric acid in and around the joints, and decreased kidney function and kidney stones. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- H Health - It may seem ridiculous to define "health" when we all know what it is. Or do we? The definition of health by the World Health Organization/Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (WHO/OMS) is as follows: "Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." Heredity - you inherit traits, like blonde hair or freckles, from your parents. The traits that are passed on to children by their parents are inherited through genes. HDL cholesterol - Lipoproteins -- combinations of lipids (fats) and proteins -- are the form in which lipids are transported in the blood. The high-density lipoproteins transport cholesterol from the tissues of the body to the liver so that it can be gotten rid of (in the bile). HDL cholesterol is therefore considered to be the "good" cholesterol. The higher the HDL cholesterol level, the lower the risk of coronary artery disease. Hydrogenated fat - fat that has been chemically altered by the addition of hydrogen atoms. Vegetable shortening and margarine are hydrogenated fats. Hormone - A biochemical "messenger" that allows distant parts of your body to communicate effectively. Hormones are secreted by unique glands and then travel through the blood stream to their target sites to relay critical information. Hormones that are controlled by the diet include insulin, glucagon, and eicosanoids -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I Inactive - do you spend most of your free time sitting on the couch watching TV or reading? Then you are inactive or sedentary. That means you do not need as many calories as if you spent that time running around outside, dancing, or playing in the park Iron deficiency - Deficiency of iron results in anemia because iron is necessary to make hemoglobin, the key molecule in red blood cells responsible for the transport of oxygen. In iron deficiency anemia, the red cells are unusually small (microcytic) and pale (hypochromic). Characteristic features of iron deficiency anemia in children include failure to thrive (grow) and increased infections. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- J Junk food: it's all right to eat chocolate chip cookies and candy once in a while. But in general, you should try to avoid filling up with sugar and "empty-calorie" foods - those that contain calories but have few important nutrients, like vitamins and minerals. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- K (potassium) - K is the symbol for potassium, the major positive ion (cation) found inside of cells. The chemical notation for potassium is K+. The proper level of potassium is essential for cells to function. An abnormal increase of potassium (hyperkalemia) or decrease of potassium (hypokalemia) can significantly affect the nervous system and heart, and when extreme, can also be fatal. The normal blood potassium level is 3.5 - 5.0 milliEquivalents/liter (mEq/L); in international units, 3.5 - 5.0 millimoles/liter (mmol/L). -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- L Lacto-vegetarian - form of vegetarian diet that includes all plant products and dairy products but no meat or eggs. Lean Body Mass - The total weight of a person can be viewed as consisting of two parts: lean body mass and total fat. The lean body mass is composed of water, muscles, bones, tendon, etc. Usually 40% of lean body mass consists of muscle. It is your lean body mass and your level of physical activity that determines your daily protein requirements. Lipid - chemical compound characterized by the fact that it is insoluble in water. Both fat and cholesterol are members of the lipid family -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- M Metabolism - whole range of biochemical processes that occur within us (or any living organism). Metabolism consists both of anabolism and catabolism (the buildup and breakdown of substances, respectively. Monounsaturated fatty acid - fatty acid that is missing one pair of hydrogen atoms in the middle of the molecule. The gap is called an “unsaturation.” Monounsaturated fatty acids are found mostly in plant and sea foods. Olive oil and canola oil are high in monounsaturated fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acids tend to lower levels of LDL-cholesterol in the blood. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- N Nutraceuticals - food or part of a food that is thought to provide medicinal or health benefits, including the prevention and treatment of disease A nutraceutical may be a naturally nutrient-rich or medicinally active food, such as garlic or soybeans, or it may be a specific component of a food, such as the omega-3 fish oil that can be derived from salmon and other cold-water fish. Nutritionist - 1. In a hospital or nursing home, a person who plans and/or formulates special meals for patients. It can also simply be a euphemism for a cook who works in a medical facility but who does not have extensive training in special nutritional needs. 2. In clinical practice, a specialist in nutrition. Nutritionists can help patients with special needs, allergies, health problems, or a desire for increased energy or weight change to devise healthy diets. Some nutritionists in private practice are well-trained, degreed, and licensed professionals. Depending on state law, however, a person using the title may not be trained or licensed at all. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- P Percent Body Fat - This describes the amount of your total weight that is composed of fat. The remainder of your weight is known as your Lean Body Mass. The higher your percent body fat, the greater the likelihood of chronic disease whether it be heart disease, cancer, or diabetes. Phytochemical/Phytonutrient - active health-protecting compounds that are found as components of plants. Currently, the terms "phytochemical" and "phytonutrient" are being used interchangeably to describe those plant compounds which are thought to have health-protecting qualities. The antioxidant, immune boosting and other health promoting properties of active compounds in plants are being investigated. Phytonutrients or phytochemicals that are being studied presently include (and are not limited to) terpenes, carotenoids, limonoids, and phytosterols. Protein - One of the three nutrients that are used as energy sources (calories) by the body. (The other energy sources are in the form of fats and carbohydrates. Proteins are essential components of the muscle, skin, and bones of animals. Proteins and carbohydrates each provide 4 calories of energy per gram, while fats provide 9 calories per gram. All protein, whether animal or plant, is composed of amino acids. There are approximately 20 amino acids commonly used by our bodies. About half of these are essential amino acids. This means our bodies can not manufacture them, they must be obtained by eating certain protein sources. Animal sources contain the highest number of these essential amino acids. Amino acids are crucial for maintenance of your muscles, immune system, and the enzymes that convert food into energy. Animal protein is better digested than is plant protein and therefore, more of their amino acids enter the bloodstream when ingested. Incoming protein stimulates the hormone glucagon which tends to stabilize blood sugar levels. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- R RDAs (Recommended Dietary Allowances) - set of estimated nutrient allowances established by the National Academy of Sciences. It is updated periodically to reflect current scientific knowledge. RDIs (Reference Daily Intakes) - set of dietary references based on the Recommended Dietary Allowances for essential vitamins and minerals and, in selected groups, protein. The name "RDI" replaces the term "U.S. RDA." Unlike DRVs, which are a new concept, many consumers may already have a good idea of what the RDIs are. Since the RDIs (the former U.S. RDAs used by FDA) have been around for almost 20 years as the established estimated values for vitamins, minerals and protein. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- S Selenium - essential mineral that is a component of a key antioxidant enzyme, glutathione reductase, in tissue respiration. Deficiency of selenium causes Keshan disease, a fatal form of cardiomyopathy (disease of the heart muscle) first observed in Keshan province in China and since found elsewhere. According to the National Academy of Sciences, the Recommended Dietary Allowances of selenium are 70 milligrams per day for men and 55 milligrams per day for women. Food sources of selenium include seafoods, some meats such as kidney and liver, and some grains and seeds. Too much selenium may cause reversible changes in the hair (balding) and nails, garlic odor to the breath, intestinal distress, weakness and slower mentation (slowed mental functioning). Shoulder rotation - Stretches shoulder muscles. Lie on the floor with a pillow under your head, legs straight. If your back bothers you, place a rolled towel under your knees. Stretch your arms straight out to the side, on the floor. Your upper arms will remain on the floor throughout this exercise. Bend at the elbow so that your hands are pointing toward the ceiling. Let your arms slowly roll backwards from the elbow Strength excersises - Even very small changes in muscle size can make a big difference in strength, especially in people who already have lost a lot of muscle. An increase in muscle that's not even visible to the eye can be all it takes to improve your ability to do things like get up from a chair or climb stairs. Your muscles are active even when you are sleeping. Their cells are still doing the routine activities they need to do to stay alive. This work is called metabolism, and it uses up calories. That can help keep your weight in check, even when you are asleep! -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- T Triglyceride - fatty substance that is composed of three fatty acids, each of which is attached to a glycerol molecule. Like cholesterol, triglyceride in the blood either comes from the diet or the liver. Also, like cholesterol, triglyceride cannot dissolve and circulate in the blood without combining with a lipoproteinare a form of fat that is transported through the blood to the body tissues. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- V Vitamins - word "vitamin" was coined in 1911 by the Warsaw-born biochemist Casimir Funk (1884-1967). At the Lister Institute in London, Funk isolated a substance that prevented nerve inflammation (neuritis) in chickens raised on a diet deficient in that substance. He named the substance "vitamine" because he believed it was necessary to life and it was a chemical amine. The "e" at the end was later removed when it was recognized that vitamins need not be amines. The letters (A, B, C and so on) were assigned to the vitamins in the order of their discovery. The one exception was vitamin K which was assigned its "K" from "Koagulation" by the Danish researcher Henrik Dam. Vitamin A: Retinol. Carotene compounds responsible for transmitting light sensation in the retina of the eye. Deficiency leads to night blindness. Beta carotene: An antioxidant which protects cells against oxidation damage that can lead to cancer. Beta carotene is converted, as needed, to vitamin A. Food sources of beta carotene include vegetables such as carrots, sweet potatoes, spinach and other leafy green vegetables; and fruit such as cantaloupes and apricots. Excessive carotene in the diet can temporarily yellow the skin, a condition called carotenemia, commonly seen in infants fed largely mashed carrots. Vitamin B1: Thiamin, acts as a coenzyme in body metabolism. Deficiency leads to beriberi, a disease of the heart and nervous system. Vitamin B2: Riboflavin, essential for the reactions of coenzymes. Deficiency causes inflammation of the lining of the mouth and skin. Vitamin B3: Niacin, an essential part of coenzymes of body metabolism. Deficiency causes inflammation of the skin, vagina, rectum and mouth, as well as mental slowing. Vitamin B6: Pyridoxine, a cofactor for enzymes. Deficiency leads to inflammation of the skin and mouth, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, weakness and anemia. Vitamin B12: An essential factor in nucleic acid synthesis (the genetic material of all cells). Deficiency leads to megaloblastic anemia, as can be seen in pernicious anemia. Folate (folic acid): Folic acid is an important factor in nucleic acid synthesis (the genetic material). Folate deficiency leads to megaloblastic anemia. Vitamin C: Ascorbic acid, important in the synthesis of collagen, the framework protein for tissues of the body. Deficiency leads to scurvy, characterized by fragile capillaries, poor wound healing, and bone deformity in children. Vitamin D: A steroid vitamin which promotes absorption and metabolism of calcium and phosphorus. Under normal conditions of sunlight exposure, no dietary supplementation is necessary because sunlight promotes adequate vitamin D synthesis in the skin. Deficiency can lead to osteomalcia in adults and bone deformity (rickets) in children. Vitamin E: Deficiency can lead to anemia. Vitamin K: An essential factor in the formation of blood clotting factors. Deficiency can lead to abnormal bleeding. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- W Whole grain - whole grain is a grain that still has its outer covering, which is nutritionally rich in vitamins, minerals and fiber. Did you know that there are many reasons to eat whole grain breads and cereals? Whole grains are low in fat, good sources of fiber, vitamins, minerals, and protein. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Z Zinc deficiency - Deficiency of zinc is related to short stature, anemia, increased pigmentation of skin, enlarged liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly); impaired gonadal function (hypogonadism); and immune deficiency.
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